Thailand has made remarkable development progress, and recently attained upper-middle-income status. The country has dramatically reduced poverty and greatly improved its social services. Despite an economic slowdown in recent years, Thailand remains the second-largest economy in Southeast Asia. The country actively promotes GMS cooperation and integration, and is a crucial partner for the less-developed GMS countries. It recently embarked on widespread economic and policy reforms under “Thailand 4.0” and guided by the 20-Year National Strategy, 2017–2036. The national strategy will help address inequalities and achieve sustainable development by seeking to (i) enhance and develop the potential of human capital, (ii) ensure justice and reduce social disparities, (iii) strengthen the economy and enhance competitiveness on a sustainable basis, (iv) promote green growth for sustainable development, (v) bring about national stability for national development toward prosperity and sustainability, and (vi) enhance the efficiency of public sector management and promote good governance.
|Population||69.67 million (2020)||Average Annual Population Growth Rate||0.5% (2015-2020)|
|GDP at PPP (current international dollars)||1,272.9 billion (2020)|
|GDP per capita at PPP (current international dollars)||18,312 (2020)|
Thailand’s fertile lands and advanced farming systems have made it the biggest agricultural producer and exporter in the GMS. The country is renowned worldwide for the quality of its rice, pineapples, dried fruits, and aquatic products; and it is a leading global supplier of rubber. The government is making strides to improve food safety and promote organic farming. Thailand actively shares its agriculture expertise with its GMS partners; and its agribusiness companies are major investors in the subregion as well.
Thailand has extensive energy resources such as oil, coal, and natural gas. However, due to a high domestic demand, it relies heavily on energy imports, such as hydroelectricity from neighboring Lao PDR. Domestic energy demand is forecast to increase dramatically in the coming decades, so Thailand is looking to secure its energy future by diversifying its power mix away from fossil fuel sources. The country is already a GMS leader in renewables, and is aiming to scale up its energye‹ciency programs. Another priority is lessening the environmental footprint of its energy sector
Although Thailand has extensively tapped into its natural resource base to spur economic development, the country still has abundant water, forest, fish, and wildlife resources. Following devastating floods in 2011, the government responded by prioritizing water management and flood prevention. Thailand is also exploring low-carbon development pathways such as “green freight” transport and environmentally friendly energy sources, including solar power. Cambodia and Thailand have recently initiated efforts to jointly protect important natural forests along their common borders.
Human resource development will play a key role in Thailand’s achieving its goal of higher-income status by 2032. In recognition of this, enhancing human capital is at the center of the country’s 20-Year National Strategy, 2017–2036. Thailand is actively working with its GMS partners to improve education and address human tracking issues. The country is also leading subregional cooperation on cross-border migrant health issues, including disease control. Addressing antimicrobial resistance and improving road safety are two other national health priorities.
Thailand is a GMS leader in ICT, with an extensive telecommunications network and widespread penetration of internet and phone services. The country is actively pursuing its vision of a “digital economy” that will spur productivity and competitiveness. Steps toward this goal include rolling out 4G wireless broadband infrastructure and promoting the use of ICT by businesses, both large and small. The country hopes to provide 40 million citizens with internet access by 2018.
Thailand has long been a major tourist destination, and these days it is one of the most visited countries in the world. With its shopping, cuisine, and vibrant urban setting, Bangkok is hugely popular. Many visitors also enjoy other destinations, including the ancient capital Ayutthaya, Khao Yai National Park, the northern city of Chiang Mai, and the pristine beaches of islands such as Phuket and Samui. Thailand’s tourism priorities include developing quality services that appeal to higher-spending markets, promoting their culture, and ensuring environmental sustainability.
Thailand has well-developed basic infrastructure for air, land, and water transport. Its paved road network is extensive—over 200,000 kilometers—while railway connectivity will soon be upgraded with dual tracks throughout the country. In Bangkok, the “Skytrain” and underground metro system are being upgraded to address urban transport challenges. Thailand is looking to further modernize and expand its transport infrastructure. One major focus is rail, especially high-speed trains, with the intention of making Thailand into a trade hub for the GMS and countries beyond. Another priority is upgrading more roads to four-lane highways.
Thailand conducts a lot of trade within the GMS. Its products such as rice, rubber, electrical appliances, and vehicles are exported throughout the subregion—and all over the world. Sea transport plays a major role in connecting Thailand with global markets, while road, rail, and air move goods and people within the subregion. As a quarter of its trade is intra-GMS, Thailand is a vitally important trading partner for the other countries in the subregion. Cooperating with its GMS partners, Thailand has simplified its procedures for cross-border trade and transport. It is also working to enhance its position as a logistics hub for the subregion.
Thailand is the most urbanized country in the GMS, with just over half of the population living in towns and cities. Bangkok is the country’s largest city, and an international hub for trade and travel. With most of Thailand’s urban centers boasting high-quality roads and other infrastructure, the focus in recent years has been on improving environmental sustainability and enhancing economic opportunities. The country’s 10 special economic zones and 100+ industrial zones have helped drive employment and trade in many secondary towns and cities, including those in border areas near Cambodia, the Lao PDR, Malaysia, and Myanmar.
GMS Program Officials and Contacts in Thailand
- Danucha PICHAYANAN (Mr)
Office of the National Economic and Social Development Council
- Vudhidej CHAMNIKIJ (Mr)
Plan and Policy Analyst
International Coordination Office
National Economic and Social Development Council
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Government of Thailand held the first Policy Platform meeting as part of the Thailand: COVID-19 Active Response and Expenditure Support (CARES) program on 9 August. The meeting was led by Mr. Arkhom Termpittayapaisith, Finance Minister of the Government of Thailand and Asian Development Bank (ADB) Governor, and Mr. Ahmed M. Saeed, Vice-President (Operations 2), ADB.
The 11th Mekong-Ganga Cooperation (MGC) Foreign Ministers’ Meeting was held on 21 July 2021, co-chaired by Mr. Prak Sokhonn, Cambodia Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, and Dr. Subrahmanyam Jaishankar, India Minister of External Affairs. The meeting noted the progress in the MGC Plan of Action 2019-2022 implementation.
The second Mekong-U.S. Partnership Ministerial Meeting held on 2 August 2021 unveiled four flagship projects under the Mekong-U.S. Partnership, and noted the 8.5 million vaccine doses and over $58 million in U.S. COVID-19 assistance to the Mekong subregion countries.
Capacity development in the area of human resource management is greatly needed in the Lao PDR’s health sector. At the Ministry of Health, strengthening the staff’s capacity for reliable planning of prevention, treatment, and managing statistical systems has contributed positively to the well-being of employees—as well as health system beneficiaries, who received better services.
This publication provides an analysis of key challenges and opportunities for the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) to realize its development goals by 2030 and beyond.
Leaders of Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam adopted the Phnom Penh declaration at the 9th Ayeyawady-Chao Phraya-Mekong Economic Cooperation Strategy (ACMECS) Summit held on 9 December. The declaration emphasizes post-pandemic socio-economic recovery and preparation for future crises and challenges through public health cooperation and enhanced supply chains. ACMECS leaders stressed the importance of vaccine multilateralism to ensure equitable and safe access to coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccines.
Strong commitments toward achieving universal health coverage (UHC) made by some developing member countries of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), including Greater Mekong Subregion members Thailand and Viet Nam, prepared these countries to better manage the health and economic impacts of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic.
The Global COVID-19 Index recognized Thailand as the top country in making the most progress toward curbing the spread of the pandemic. In a report published by Thailand’s Ministry of Public Health,Thailand shares its experience in addressing the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak and provides policy lessons to help other countries overcome this disease.
Innovative Public Health Strategies
The book, “Thailand’s Experience in the COVID-19 Response”, was developed by the Ministry of Public Health, Thailand to share their experience in addressing the COVID-19 outbreak and to provide policy lessons for other countries to overcome this disease.